Mesopotamia

The earliest civilizations of the world arose in the Middle East. 6500 years ago in the fertile valley of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in present-day Iraq, the capital Baghdad, has formed a center of world culture, the Greeks called Mesopotamia. Its inhabitants – the Sumerians, Babylonians, Syrians, Chaldeans, Persians, Akkad – lived in cities built huge temples, knew how to write.

The rulers of the Sumerian state for a long time fought with the government of Acadia in Northern Mesopotamia (2287 – 2167 BC), whose ruler, Sargon the Great, conquered the Sumerians. When the fallen dynasty of Sumer and Akkad, in Mesopotamia there was an ancient Babylonian Kingdom (1894 – 1595 BC), which developed the tradition of the Sumerian culture. So the Sumerians changed Babylon, the Syrians and, eventually, the Persians.

The main sources of cultural knowledge of the peoples of Mesopotamia – it’s written in cuneiform (protopisyu) different directions religious epic, poetic, scientific texts, public documents, and even preserved works of art.

The Sumerians settled in Mesopotamia about 3600 B.C. They have created a powerful state, flourished in 2800 – 2369 BC, built a well-fortified city, a complex system of irrigation. A particularly high level in the Sumerian civilization reached engineering thought, astronomy, mathematics, medicine, literature, music, fine and applied art.

Around 3000 BC Sumerians created cuneiform writing (to heat), which was later adopted Akkad, the Syrians, and other nations. Architecture Mesopotamia because of the constant wars was architecture fortresses.

Reinforced doors with heavy portal, columns, reinforced frame and bronze doors – Babylonian invention. From there came and bronze lions standing on either side of the door. In Mesopotamia, created and other architectural written term papers forms. It’s towers, domes, arches and architectural arch. First, there was a set called “false” when each successive layer of masonry protrudes slightly above the bottom until the top is closed the hole, and later came the “right set” when the stones were placed in the vault itself. In Mesopotamia, the houses are built of mud bricks, or deification, because Stones were hard to get. The city center was a temple – a ziggurat.

The best preserved part of the art – Glyptics. She argues that early Sumerian culture is closely related to myths, otherworldly and ritual culture. The rulers of the world are called in Sumerian mythology anthropomorphic gods. The most important ruler of the gods Enlil, ruler of heaven, of fertility, love and war – goddess Inan (in Babylon her name – Ishtar), the sun god Utu (in Babylon – Shamash), and others.

The most important feature of an artist of ancient civilizations – the knowledge of the rules of the canon and the ability to rely on them, rather than the originality and individuality. Formed original Sumerian aesthetic canon of the figure of a man found in poorly preserved relief, rounded sculptural works glyptic. They are the human nose is depicted in profile, eyes – front and legs – side. The human body is depicted not as it really is, and what should be on the strict requirements of the canon, a certain tradition of art. Mountains, trees, waves and water glyptics conventionally depicted in relief, given the symmetry and rhythm attitude.

Most of aesthetic views, formed in the Sumerian state, the canons of art, stylistic features, not much has changed, remained in Babylonian culture. Every great city of Babylon, the state had its own ziggurat. The rulers of Babylon built ziggurats not afford, and the faithful who have come here with the gifts of God. Ziggurats constantly restored and decorated. Not one of the ziggurat could not compete with the Tower of Babel, to perpetuate the power of the region. In its construction it used 85 million. The sun-baked bricks. The Tower of Babel – is declining seven towers facing one another, with stone staircases, and the smallest, towering high above the edge stood a sanctuary dedicated god Marduk.

A small time interval from 605 to 538 BC during the reign of Nebuchadnezzar II, Babylon was the richest, most powerful city in the world with lots of temples and palaces. Huge Ishtar Gate were covered with blue, glazed tiles, decorated with images of dragons and bulls. Lovely Hanging Gardens – one of the seven wonders of the world. They were high on the ziggurat, to remind the queen Semiramis, wife of Nebuchadnezzar, of her home in the mountains. Scientists exploring the archaeological Babylonia, found that a lot of things and phenomena in the history of mankind is created the first time. That’s right, a book of laws, school, epic literature (“Epic of Gilgamesh”), the calendar of farming, cookbook treatment.