Middle Kingdom (2000-1570)
While the art of the Middle Kingdom, carefully follow the canons and traditions of ancient, it is left entirely the same. After a long period of turmoil and the collapse of Egypt on separate noma, the state 21B. BC. again united under the rule of the Theban rulers – this marked the beginning of the Middle Kingdom. But now the centralization has been so absolute as before. Local rulers nomarhi became richer and more independent. Now tombs of nobles were located not at the foot of the royal pyramids, and separately, on the territories of polynomials. The pyramids have become more modest, smaller size. As these changes were reflected in the style of art? On the one hand – to reduce the pathos of monumentality: in art there is a shade lower, everyday. The enhanced features of the portrait of an individual characteristic.
But the canon, on the other hand, still prevail, having for a too great antiquity, inevitably slipping into a template and schema. When the ancient sculptors carved out of the rock first of the Great Sphinx, their awe and horror etched secret in this bulky, but truly majestic lookout desert.
When in the Middle Kingdom skilled craftsmen are made on the account is not known what the figure of a lion with the face of the pharaoh – they pay tribute to tradition. Tanissky Sphinx executed much more “virtuoso” than his ancient ancestor – confidently carve the body of a lion, impeccably strong face a portrait of Amenemhet III, excellent molding face – and yet it looks like a work of officially-cold.
But a lot of spontaneity, even naivete in small plastic Middle Kingdom – wooden and porcelain statuettes of servants, tillers, porters, boatmen, laundresses, the shepherds. They are often combined in groups, the whole genre scenes.
A big step forward was made in the art of painting. Earlier, in the Old Kingdom, was dominated by painted reliefs, now replaced them painting, tempera. The paintings allow greater flexibility and richness of the color pattern. Beautiful painting cycles have been found in rock tombs Antelope House, it was hohyaeinom nomarch Hnumhotep. It vividly depicts hunting scenes Hnumhotepa; harvest, harvesting grain in his possession; Various animals and birds depicted with almost Japanese elegance. Although Egyptians painted animals, birds and plants laconically, terse lines, but surprisingly accurate and subtle. They had some particularly intimate understanding of the animal world, lost by later civilizations. Meanwhile, drawing from nature, the Egyptians never done. And silk weaving reliefs and paintings to create, they use canons: how to build a shape like an image placed on a plane. However, for the successful execution of the work, the artist should know how vyglyadyadt those subjects that he portrays. There were necessary and observation, and practice. Egyptian artists were trained by drawing from memory on the ruins of stone, papyrus scrolls or clay shards, ostracon. They are found in a variety during the excavations. On ostracon draw or motifs that may be needed for the painting tombs, or variations of those that were already in the ancient tombs. These figures Hymenaeus canonical and more Sketchy than painting yourself.