From prehistoric times to the present day are painting remains unchanged: the artist puts on a flat surface or board webs more or less thick mush of color pigments.
Painting is carried out by means of paints – a mixture of powders of animal, vegetable, mineral or synthetic origin. To be able to apply the paint to the substrate, the artist mixes the powder with a “binder”, which may be pure water (fresco), glue, gum arabic (gouache, watercolor, pastel), or egg yolk (distemper or tempera). In XV century discovered that oil is particularly effectively binds paint. Since then, oil painting became the most popular technique. Paint is applied to the pre-primed foundation -Walls, wooden board, canvas, paper, silk, ivory, metal, stone. The finished painting is usually varnish, a transparent solution to oil, gasoline, tar base, which allows it to maintain better.
The first mural
In prehistoric times, man used red, black and yellow clay to produce paints for painting the walls of their caves. Over the centuries – from antiquity and the Middle Ages to the present day – machinery frescoes continued to be widely used, largely remaining unchanged: paint, made of colored pigments dissolved in water, are applied by brush on the wall or ceiling, covered with lime mortar, while it is wet and I did not have time to dry. The main drawback fresco works lies in the fact that they can not be transported. In addition, here the artist has no margin for error: the plaster dries very quickly and alterations and corrections are possible.
From oil to acrylic
To overcome these shortcomings frescoes, people have come up with “picture” – a painting on a portable basis – wooden planks, pieces of metal or paper sheets, and since the XV century began to use pieces of canvas stretched on a frame. It was a remarkable discovery: canvas paper stronger, lighter wood and practically unlimited in size. To write on the canvas, it is put on an easel. American artist Jackson Pollock, for the huge canvases that do not fit any one easel, they spread out on the floor. Paint over the past century also changed: water-based egg changed, make the paint less transparent and more dense, then there were oil paints, long drying, which allowed to impose on a large number of fabric layers and, if necessary, correct writing. Until the XIX century, the artists themselves were colors and store them in a small leather pouch. Then it was invented paint in tubes. They make life easier for the artist, and allowed him to increasingly work outside the studio. Finally, modern chemistry has created a more vibrant and resistant to light colors – Acrylic
Engraving technique is that the artist is not a drawing on paper, and the first on the smooth surface – a wooden board, metal plate, and then make them with prints on paper, in one or more colors. High skill multicolor woodcut had Japanese.