Art is a form of social consciousness, an integral part of the spiritual culture of humanity, a specific kind of practical and spiritual development of the world. In this regard, the art group include species of human activities – painting, music, theater, fiction (sometimes stands out – Compare the expression “Literature and Art”) and so on. N., United because they are specific – artistic and imaginative – forms of reproduction of reality. In a broader sense the word “art” refers to any form of practice, when it is done skillfully, artistically, skillfully not only technologically, but also in the aesthetic sense.
Determination of the hallmarks of art and its role in people’s lives caused sharp disagreements throughout the history of culture. The art was declared “imitation of nature” – and “free form creation”; “Reproduction of reality” – and “self-knowledge of the Absolute,” “self-expression of the artist” – and “the language of the senses”; a special kind of game – and a special kind of prayer. These differences are explained by many factors: the difference theorists philosophical positions (materialism or idealism), their ideological, based on different kinds of art and creative techniques (for example, literature or architecture, classicism or realism), and finally, the objective complexity of the structure of art itself This complexity, the diversity of the structure of art is not realized, and some theorists that define the essence of art is like epistemological, ideological, how, how aesthetic, how creative and constructive, and so on. d. Dissatisfaction with such single-line definition leads some critics to argue that in art organically linked different moments – the knowledge and assessment of the reality, or reflection and creativity, or a model and a sign. But these two-dimensional interpretation of the essence of art is not to recreate a sufficiently complete its complex structure. In the study of the nature of art science began to apply the methods of systems analysis, allowing to come up with some other parties to the disclosure of the essence of art, in particular: a) identify the quality and function of art, which are necessary and sufficient to describe its internal structure; b) show that the combination of these qualities and functions – not merely the “sum” is not a mechanical conglomerate and organically integral unity, which gives rise to a particular artistic effect VI; c) the ability to reveal the structure of the art modified form, on the one hand, species, varieties, childbirth and genres of art, and on the other – the different historical types of art (creative techniques, styles, trends, schools). Although Marxist aesthetics is still far from the final solution of this problem, some of its aspects can be covered with sufficient certainty.
The process of historical development of the social division of labor led to that of the original conjoint, syncretic human activity stood out and gained independent existence diverse branches of material and spiritual production, as well as various forms of communication between people. Unlike science, language and other forms of specialized social activities designed to meet the diverse needs of people, art was necessary to mankind as a means of integral social upbringing of the individual, his emotional and intellectual development, his initiation to the accumulated collective experience of humanity, to the age-old wisdom to concrete social and historical interest, aspirations and ideals. But in order to play the role of a powerful tool of socialization of the individual, art should be like a real human life, t. E. Must recreate the (simulated) real life in its integrity and structural complexity. Art should “double” the real human activity, be it an imaginary continuation and supplement and thereby extend the life experience of the individual, allowing it to “live” a lot of illusory “lives” in the “worlds” created by writers, musicians, painters and so on. d.
At the same time (this is the most important aspect of the dialectic of art), it acts as both like real life, and how it is different from – invented, illusory, like a game of imagination, as the creation of human hands (that consciousness “hand-made” man’s relation to art, by Remark Feuerbach, is fundamentally different from its attitude towards religion. Lenin fully identified himself with this thought Feuerbach – see. Full. cit. cit., 5 ed., vol. 29, pp. 53-54). Artwork excites the same time, the deepest experiences, such experiences of real events, and aesthetic pleasure stems from its perception of it as a work of art, how to create a model of human life. For this to be contradictory effects occurred, art should be isomorphic to the real human life, that is. E. It must not copy and reproduce its structure.
Real human livelihoods, while organic integrity, formed from the interaction of four main components – labor, knowledge, value orientation and communication. Accordingly, the art works in its own way as organic integrity, adopts the structure of human life. It serves primarily as a specific (shaped) way of understanding reality, but simultaneously a specific, imaginative way its assessment, approval of a certain system of values; works of art created on the basis of reflection, awareness of the real world, but the mind, according to Lenin, “… not only reflects the objective world, but creates it” (ibid, p. 194), to build something really it was not, and sometimes can not be (fantastic images, grotesque and so on. d.); Thus, art creates imaginary “worlds”, more or less close to the real world and more or less of it excellent, t. e. is, in the words of Karl Marx, the method of “practical and spiritual development” of reality, and characterized by its purely spiritual development characteristic of theoretical knowledge, and from a purely material practice (see. Marx and Engels, Soch., 2nd ed., vol. 12, p. 728). Proizveenie art is always a spiritual way – a model of life and material design – sound, plastic, color, verbal, and so on. E., The artist created under the laws of the art and technology of processing of the material. But this structure itself plays a dual role: on the one hand, it gives an artistic image materializes, he is – like any other model – can not exist; On the other hand, it serves as a special, artistic and imaginative system of signs, as a specific artistic “language” (music, dance, beautiful, architecture, film and so on. d.) to bring to the consciousness of the people prisoners in it artistic information.
Thus, the art as a specific social phenomenon is a complex system characteristics, the structure of which is characterized by the conjugation of cognitive, valuation, creative (spiritual and material) and semiotic-communicative faces (or subsystems). Through this art serves as a means of communication between people, and as an instrument of education, enrich their knowledge about the world and about themselves, and as a way of educating the person on the basis of a system of values, and as a source of high aesthetic pleasures. While all of these functions of art fused together, they are only different aspects of the same whole – artistic influence of art on the person, their relationship is very different, and sometimes one of the functions to the forefront and becomes dominant value.
Artistic and creative human activity unfolds in a variety of forms, which are called arts, childbirth and genres of art abundance and diversity of these forms may seem chaotic jumble, in reality, they are regularly organized (or rather – the laws of historical self-organized) system of species, genera, genre forms . For aesthetic theory established that, depending on the material means by which the constructed works of art, objectively, there were three groups of arts:
1) spatial or plastic (painting, sculpture, graphics, fine art photography, architecture, decorative arts and design), t. E. Those which deploy in the space of their images;
2) time (verbal and music), m. E. Those in which images are built in time, not in real space;
3) the space-time (dance, acting and everything based on it synthetic art – theater, cinema, teleart, variety-circus art, etc.. D.), Ie. E. Those whose images have both length and duration, corporeality and dynamism.
On the other hand, in each of these three groups of art is art-creative activity can enjoy:
1) type of visual signs, t. E. Similarity of images suggesting a sensually perceived reality (painting, sculpture, graphics – the so-called fine arts, literature, acting);
2) signs nonrepresentational type t. E. Do not allow the recognition in images of any kind were real objects, events, actions and messages directly to the associative mechanisms of perception (architecture and crafts, music and dance);
3) signs mixed, fine-nonrepresentational nature inherent synthetic forms of creativity (the synthesis of architecture and arts and crafts from the Arts Visual, verbal and musical – songs and acting and dance – pantomime synthesis).
Every form of art itself is characterized by way of material existence of his works and used type of figurative signs. Within these limits, all kinds of art have a variety is determined by the characteristics of the material and the consequent uniqueness of the artistic language. Thus, the species of literary art are storytelling and written literature; varieties of music – vocal and instrumental music of different types; varieties of performing arts – drama, music, puppetry, shadow theater, as well as pop music and circus; varieties of dance – home dance, classical, acrobatic, gymnastic, dance on the ice, and so on. d. On the other hand, each art form is generic and genre division. The criteria for these divisions are defined in the science of art in different ways, but obviously the very existence of these sorts of literature as epic, lyrics, drama, these sorts of fine art as easel, monumental and decorative, miniature, painting genres such as portrait, landscape, still life and so on. e., or performing arts genres such as tragedy, drama, comedy, vaudeville, and others. Thus, the art, taken as a whole, is a historically established system of various specific forms of artistic assimilation of the world, each of which has features common to all individual and distinctive. The art originated in ancient times, in the Stone Age. For primitive man the original forms of artistic activity – the creation of myths, songs, dances, images of animals on cave walls, decoration tools, weapons, clothing, most of the human body – were of great importance, as promoted teambuilding people develop them spiritually, helping them be aware of their social nature, they are unlike animals, t. e. have served the cause of great historical humanization of man. In this initial phase of development of art was not yet an independent form of activity, as all intellectual production here was “directly interwoven” in the production of material (see. Marx and Engels, ibid, vol. 3, p. 24) and the various spheres of spiritual culture is not separated from each other. Accordingly, in this era of art is inseparable from practice, from religion, from games and other forms of communication between people, it still has “applied” character. With the further development of culture art gradually segregated in a specific area of activity – “… artistic production as such” (Marx, ibid, v. 12, p. 736), but a number of sectors of artistic activity for a long time remained in subjection in religion, but some still remain and their inextricable link with various kinds of utilitarian activity – technical (architecture, arts and crafts and design), journalistic, communicative (artistic essay, journalism), advocacy (elocution, poster art advertising , decorative arts), sports (gymnastics, figure skating), and so on.. In all these cases the Art gives practice with which it merged, the ability to have on human emotional and psychological impact. However, even in those of its forms, which arose in the isolation of art in the independent sphere of activity, it was a social phenomenon on the content of the operation, according to the laws of its development.
Real life art always proceeds in a given system of culture. The historical development of art reflects the impact of a complex combination of external shocks – from the evolution of material production, the economy, society and building techniques to the evolution of social consciousness – in its most subtle ideological and socio-psychological aspects. However, the artistic development of humanity possesses relative independence, contradictory interaction with its social determinism. The result of this interaction is the subordination of art-historical process of change and control a variety of creative techniques, each of which expresses a particular turn of a multi-faceted structure IV, highlight the first one, then another face. So, all realistic methods sought above all to comprehend reality, whereas classicism, for example, the main role of art seen in the image of the ideal world, which itself represented a system of values might be argued. How would, however, nor were coupled in the creative method of the main facets of artistic structure, it is always characterized primarily by the content side Creativity, refracted through the prism of the reality of life outlook of the artist, and then the way to realization of this content in the form t. E. Particular style. The process of artistic development of mankind unfolds, therefore, in the “two-dimensional space,” one of which is denoted by the coordinates of the concept of the method, and the other – the notion of style.