The ancient state in the lower reaches of the Nile River in northeastern Africa. It happened in 3000 BC. e. the merger of the kingdoms of Upper and Lower Egypt. In the calculation of the Egyptian priest Manetho (end-start 3 4 c. BC. E.) To 341 BC. e. (2nd conquest of Egypt by the Persians) had 30 dynasties. Ancient Egyptian art, mainly designed to serve the needs of religion, including the mortuary cult and public cult of the deified pharaoh, to express their ideas in a strictly canonical form, but survived evolution, reflect changes in the political and spiritual life of Egyptian society. There have been developed many classic architectural forms and types (the pyramid, an obelisk, a column), art forms (round sculpture, relief, mural painting, etc..). Formed local art schools. Wink bright creative individuality. Ancient Egyptian artists have interpreted and implemented in a coherent system of basic means of plastic arts: volume, weight, suspension and ceiling – in architecture; plane, line, silhouette, color spot – in relief and painting; texture of stone and wood – in easel and monumental sculpture; rhythm. The situation was canonized form of images of the human figure on the plane – both in full face (eyes, shoulders) and profile (face, chest, legs).
The basic principles of ancient Egyptian art began to take shape in the period, and II dynasties (c. 3000-c. 2800 BC. E.). Architecture acquired a leading role, is closely associated with the funeral cult (the tomb, mastaba). Mainstream its principles of monumentality and static embodying the idea of the immutability of the social order and superhuman greatness of Pharaoh, influenced the development of sculpture and painting, which is also characterized by generalized geometry, symmetry and static, strict Front (Hasehem statue of Pharaoh, the beginning of the third thousand. BC. e., Cairo). During the Old Kingdom (c. 2800-c. 2250 BC. E.) Found earlier artistic techniques gained stylistic perfection. It produced a new architectural style of the tomb of the pharaoh – the pyramids, the ultimate simplicity of form which, combined with the giant sizes created by alienated, superhuman grandeur, architectural image (the pyramids of Giza and Saqqara). Funerary complexes at the foot of the pyramids (memorial temples, connected with long covered corridor to the entrance pavilions, majestic figure of the Sphinx, strict rows of tombs mastabaobraznyh court) reflect ceremonial order and hierarchy of Egyptian society. In the paintings and reliefs on the walls of tombs (picture prosperous life in the kingdom of the dead) appear typical Egyptian artist sharp observation, a sense of rhythm, the beauty of the generalized contour lines, silhouette, local color stains (reliefs and tombs Tee Ahhotepa at Saqqara, the middle of the 3rd thousand. BC.).
The big development was the sculptural portrait. According to the beliefs of the Egyptians, portrait statues played a role twins dead and serves as a receptacle of their souls. Clearly differentiated into types (going man with the exposed leg forward, sitting cross-legged), solemnly static portrait statues differ clarity and fidelity the most important, characteristics and social situation portrayed (the statue of the pharaoh Khafre, Cairo, scribe Kai, Louvre), volume statues are summarized; the folds of clothing, wigs and hats, jewelry carefully designed.
In the Middle Kingdom (c. 2020-c. 1700 BC. E.) Lost grandeur of the pyramids. The architecture manifested the influence of provincial traditions – mastaba rock tombs were replaced with 2-or 4-column portico. Funeral churches often separated from the tombs have an elongated axial composition, in which a significant place is given colonnades and porticos (Temple of Mentuhotep 1 in Deir el-Bahri). Expand the construction of irrigation facilities. Enhance the growth of cities (Cahoon remains of the city in the district of Fayoum), in the building that showed class inequality: small mud hut close residential areas, separated by a wall from the aristocratic part of the city, very different from the palaces (adobe) with rooms decorated with paintings, with columns and porticos, galleries, courtyards. In the visual arts increased tendency to credibility. The murals of tombs image acquired greater compositional freedom, there were attempts to transfer volume, enriched colors. Special poetic freshness and spontaneity of different secondary images of everyday scenes, plants, animals (painted tombs at Thebes, 21 in. BC. E.). The sculptural portrait showed a more individualized attitude to man. When you save the canons fixed age composition features of the model, there were elements of the disclosure of the character (portrait heads and statues of pharaohs Sesostris III and Amenemhat III, 19th c. BC. E.); deliberately referring to the hard rocks of stone (diorite, granite), brilliantly overcoming the resistance of the material, the sculptor elicited a clear structure of the face, emphasized its severity, gave dramatic expression of the image.
Bright flowering of Egyptian art has survived in the era of the New Kingdom (c. 1580-c. 1070 BC. E.). Successful trips to Asia and the influx of wealth led to an exceptional luxury life of the Egyptian nobility of the time. Severe, dramatichesskie images of the Middle Kingdom were replaced by subtly-aristocratic. It intensified the desire for elegance and decorative splendor. The architecture developed further trend of the previous period. In the temple of Queen Hatshepsut at Deir el-Bahri, which is deployed in the space of an architectural complex, partly carved into the rocks, strict lines of cornices and columns protodoricheskih contrasted his reasonable ordering a chaotic rock crevice. Softly modeled statues, reliefs and paintings give the church an enlightened and harmonious clarity. The reliefs lines became sleeker, thinner stone surface treatment. A special development was in-depth relief with elegant game of light and shade (reliefs of the temple of Hatshepsut, the beginning of the 15th century. BC. E.). The murals were unprecedented freedom of movement and angles, subtlety colorful combinations in the composition is widely introduced landscape (painted tombs at Thebes, the end of the 15th century. BC. E.). The ground temples, developed the idea of a grand rhiturno spatial composition, the main elements of steel deployed along the longitudinal axis open courtyard enclosed with a colonnade, with rows hypostylus lotosovidnyh or papirusovidnyh monumental columns and a sanctuary with statues of the gods; Entrance to the temple signed it two pylons, which were erected in front of obelisks and statues (temples of Karnak and Luxor).
Art of Akhenaten time (1st half of the 14th century. BC. E.) An effort to weaken the power of the priesthood, held a religious reform Akhenaten, founded a new capital Ahetaton – modern El Amarna) differs zaostrёnnostyu, almost grotesque treatment of the individual, painfully ugly features Pharaoh and his family. By the end of the reign of Akhenaten sculptural portraits are characterized by aristocratic refinement and classical clarity of images. The masterpieces of ancient Egyptian art are made by the sculptor Tuthmosis portraits of the pharaoh and his wife Nefertiti (State Museum, Berlin-Dahlem). Traditions of art time Akhenaten continued his immediate successors. While maintaining technical excellence and decorative elegance, the art of Egypt in the mid-14th. BC. e. gradually acquired, however, the tone of academic coldness (finds from the tomb of Pharaoh Tutankhamun – gold mask, throne, vessels, chests with reliefs and paintings). The traditions of the era of Akhenaten retained by a number of masters of Thebes and Memphis. Some works are distinguished by a sharp characteristic way, direct transmission of emotions and generalized contour drawing (relief depicting mourners, Pushkin Museum).
Art of the 2nd half of the 14th century. BC. e. peculiar desire for grand pomp and heavy forms (hypostylus temple at Karnak with 134 massive columns). Again became widespread rock type of church (Abu Simbel). In the visual arts intensified idealization of the images of the pharaoh (the statue of Ramses II in Abu Simbel). High level reached in Egypt, arts and crafts (vessels of slate, alabaster, crystal, curly dressing spoons made of ivory and wood, gold bracelets, necklaces and rings, inlaid with precious stones carved and painted chests, furniture). Obey the basic laws of stylistic ancient Egyptian art household products feature a simple polished form, exquisite decorative brilliance, finesse finish. Last heyday of ancient Egyptian art has survived under the pharaohs of the so-called Saisskoy Dynasty (7th c. BC. E.). Characteristically appeal to ancient traditions, eclectic compound of artistic techniques of different eras. Carefully crafted and polished the statues and reliefs marked academic distracted. Some proievedeniya endowed with expressive portrait characteristics (Mantuemheta statue, Cairo).
After the conquest of the country by Alexander the Great (4th c. BC. E.) The art of Egypt included in the scope of Hellenistic art, and later – the art of ancient Rome. Sacral Architecture of this time, combining antique and ancient Egyptian form marked features of eclecticism (the temple of the god Horus in Edfu, 237-57 BC. E.). The original fusion of ancient Egyptian and Roman traditions are fayyumskie portraits. With the transition of Egypt under Byzantine rule (late. 4 in.) Has developed one of the local variants of the early Christian culture – Coptic art. From 7. Egypt has one of the leading schools of medieval Arab art.
An indelible mark in the history of world culture has left a wonderful and integral art of ancient Egypt. To better understand its uniqueness, we must remember that most of it has arisen in connection with the religious beliefs of the ancient Egyptians. They believed that the soul of man after his death, continues to exist and occasionally visits the body. So the Egyptians so carefully preserved dead bodies; they embalmed and kept in safe burial facilities. To the deceased could, and in the afterlife to enjoy all the benefits it gave with all sorts of richly decorated items and luxury goods, as well as statues of servants. In case the body of the deceased for some – any reason undergo destruction, created more portrait sculpture is replaced to return from the dead souls of her earthly shell.
Above all, we care about is to provide eternal life ruler of the country – to Pharaoh. Already during his lifetime, for decades, thousands of his subjects were cut out of the rocks, drag, and put up to place huge blocks of stone for the royal tombs. If you remember how low was the level of technology at the time, it is easy to imagine what the cost of labor and how many lives it is worth building. Then came the so-called great stepped pyramid; the oldest of them is in Saqqara and was constructed four and a half millennia ago. The masterpieces of ancient Egyptian art of building the pyramids were. They stagger the imagination with its size, the geometric accuracy and the amount of labor expended in their construction. Especially strong impression they were right after the completion when their carefully polished surface of dazzling sparkling in the rays of the sun.
The greatest and most striking building of this kind is part of the famous ensemble of the pyramids at Giza. This pyramid of Pharaoh Khufu. Its height is 146 meters and it is free to fit, for example, St. Isaac’s Cathedral. In fact, the pyramid is composed entirely of stone, inside it is only a small burial chamber and corridors leading to it that after the burial of the king had been walled up. However, this did not stop the robbers find a way to the shelter in the pyramid treasures; not by chance, and later the construction of the pyramid was abandoned. Now the tomb began to cut down the rocks and their entrances cleverly disguised. Thanks to the incredible coincidence, was opened in 1922, one such tomb where the deceased was buried the young Pharaoh Tutankhamun.
From the pyramids and mastaba major nobles on the banks of the Nile evolved whole “city of the dead.” Nearby, usually on the other side of the Nile, rose temples to honor the gods. Their columned courtyards and rooms were huge gate formed by two massive stone blocks tapering upwards, the so-called pylons. To the gate of the road were framed by rows of sphinxes – statues with a lion’s body and a human or a ram’s head. Columns repeated forms common in Egypt, then plants – papyrus, lotus, palm trees. How dense forest they are in huge temples of Luxor and Cariaco, which were based around 16-14 centuries BC. In our time, it became particularly famous carved into the rock temple at Abu Simbel. Construction of a dam threatened him Assusianskoy flooding. In order to save the church has done huge work: the rock in which the temple is carved, sawed into pieces and reassembled in a safe place on the high bank of the Nile.
Egyptian craftsmen created many beautiful, simple and majestic sculptures, nothing of the sort knew none of the later eras. Sculptures in painted wood or polished stone distinguished feature. Pharaohs usually depicted in the same pose, often standing up, with arms extended along the body, and exposed his left foot forward. Despite the idealization, portraits unique features right handed person. The images of ordinary people had more life and movement than in the solemn statues of rulers.
The walls and pillars of the Egyptian buildings were decorated with reliefs and paintings, which are easily recognized by the original image receptions person. Each part of the figure was represented in its turn so that it could be seen as fully as possible: feet and head in a side view, and the eye and plechi- front. The point here was not the inability, and in strict compliance with certain rules. Long strips followed one another a series of images embedded outlined contours and painted in beautiful colors chosen; they were accompanied by hieroglyphs – marks – pictures letter of the ancient Egyptians.For the most part here shows the events in the life of the pharaohs and nobles, there are also scenes work. It is believed that depicts not only the actual much desired events because the Egyptians believed that portrayed necessarily be fulfilled. The ancient Egyptians did not know the prospect, distant objects are depicted on a neighbor. Despite some naivete, their reliefs and paintings captivate subtlety and finesse. Especially captivating slim woman in light linen robes, adorned with numerous jewels. Special heyday of Egyptian art came during the reign of Pharaoh Akhenaten in the 14th century BC. At that time the art of getting an echo, and actual events. Among other works were then created wonderful images king’s daughters and his wife, the beautiful Nefertiti, which influenced the ideal of beauty even today. Due to the strict rules and beliefs of the ancient Egyptian Art has existed almost unchanged for about two and a half millennia. In the later period, it has been exposed to the art of other nations, especially the Greeks, and in the beginning of our era finally extinguished.
Art of Ancient Egypt
In ancient Egypt, reflected on the significance of crafts, and study art. Art had a high social status, he was of divine origin. The essence of the people in this world – to prepare for the mortal life, which is based on myths and colorful pictures.
The Egyptians believed that the soul of the dead people live on and sometimes visit them. So they carefully guarded the dead body and kept it in a sturdy building. Conservative mumifikatsionnymi materials were various oils, clay, sand, tar, dust, hair, perfume and onions. At the heart of the deceased lozhili omulet, which was made of stone, wood or metal, as well as to them lozhili jewelry and expensive clothes.
ARCHITECTURE – is one main branch of culture of ancient Egypt.
Since ancient times, Egypt attracted traveler, students, external neighboring countries. Greeks egipedskoy civilization surprised her monuments and the nature of life, voskhischalisumu and imagination. Two great pyramids of Cheops and Chephren – ranked among the seven wonders of the world. Egypt’s interest began during the Renaissance. The study of the monuments of Egypt began only in the 19th century, when after visiting their participants, the Napoleonic expedition released collection “Description of Egypt” (1798-1801) and Jean-Francois SHAMPOLЁN in 1822. read operation, helped to read hieroglyphics. Please note that only the archaeological site to help reconstruct and understand the life and art of ancient Egypt. Of great importance was the reading of texts written in hieroglyphs that have helped understand the history, craft, culture and art of ancient Egipta.V this region came the robbers, they destroyed monuments and stolen works of art were sold in European museums.
Culture of Ancient Egypt is divided into three periods:
In 525 BC, the Persian king Cambyses conquered Egypt and turned it into a Persian province. In 323 BC Alexander the Great conquered Egypt and founded Alexandria.