Human evolution (the theory of the origin and formation of the person). As often happens in science, the accumulation of new facts and observations are not always sposobstuet clarify this or that problem. Even 40 years ago in our textbooks say that our most ancient ancestor lived about 500 thousand. Years ago on about. Java. It was a Javanese Pithecanthropus (ape), whose fossil bones have been found and studied order term papers by Dutch physician and anthropologist Eugene Dubois. There were other finds. In China, Zhou Koutyan cave was found a skull and some bones of Sinanthropus (the Chinese people), which had signs of some advancement along the line of evolution compared with Pithecanthropus. Even more advanced are found in Germany, “Heidelberg Man” and Neanderthal. On the basis of these observations it has developed a simple and consistent scheme of human evolution: Pithecanthropus – Sinanthropus – Homo erectus – Neanderthal – modern man (Homo sapiens).
Although professional anthropologists anywhere that is not explicitly stated, but it was somehow generally accepted that every preceding species gradually as a result of evolution turned into a later and finally developed into the modern Neanderthal man.
In the 60-ies. followed by a series of discoveries made by the Leakey family (Louis, Mary and their son Robert – anthropologists from South Africa). They found in East Africa a lot of bones and in some cases almost complete skeletons of the evolutionary precursor Pithecanthropus – an Australopithecus afarensis.
Generally Australopithecus had already been known since 1924, but were then found some bones, but given the massive excavations Leakey finds.
It also met with the bones of Australopithecus crushed bones of animals and roughly processed stone tools. Surprising and sensational in Leakey work was the discovery in a layer of volcanic tuff fossilized footprints feet adult Australopithecus and baby. By the scheme anthropogenes added another, most initial link.
However, the scheme did not last long. Genetic studies in recent years in the US and in Germany has shown, firstly, that the “first mother” of mankind was an African, and, secondly, that the Neanderthal man could be an ancestor of modern man. It was a dead-end branch of evolution, extinct (or “vymerzshaya”) of about 40 thousand. Years ago, during the most cooling and glaciation.
L. Leakey and his followers successfully used and use radioisotope methods of determining the absolute age, according to which the most ancient Australopithecus lived about 3.7 million years ago. It turned out that Australopithecus and the Neanderthals were several types, and the “reasonable man” appeared in Africa about 200 thousand. Years ago. Current concepts of anthropology have become much more complex and sometimes give rise to more questions than answers.